outline and evaluate factors affecting eyewitness testimony

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convicted. It has happened time and time again. * Anxiety PS280 Psychology and the law Outline and evaluate leading questions and post-event discussion as factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (16 marks) Describe: Leading questions are phrased in a way that influences/prompts a certain response Research: Two conditions shown the same video. Furthermore, jurors tend to rely on factors that are known not to strongly predict identification accuracy. Outline and evaluate the effect of anxiety on eyewitness testimony AO1 AO2 Yerkes Dodson law – states that there is an optimum level of anxiety for accurate eyewitness testimony. However, other research (e.g., Foster et al; Christianson and Hubinette) into real-life incidents involving high levels of stress, have shown that in such situations, memory can be detailed, accurate and long-lasting. If PsychBoost is helping in your studies, consider https://www.patreon.com/psychboost - I'm making A-level psych perks for patreons! There are three phases of the memory process: Encoding, Storage, and... ... Here is some good news; compared to the old specification, the new AS and A-level psychology content you’re required to know for factors affecting eyewitness testimony have reduced. The knife became the central detail and was what the participants focussed on and the man’s face became the peripheral detail, which meant that it was unlikely that it would be remembered accurately. Using trial simulation methods, research demonstrates that jurors are often insensitive to the factors that are known to influence eyewitness memory: stress experienced by the witness, weapon focus, and the influence of suggestive identification procedures. Research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors including anxiety and stress, reconstructive memory and also the use of leading questions. People who are not at all stressed, and people who are very stressed will be less accurate eyewitnesses that those who are under a moderate amount of stress. Exposure time to the event or object of focus is an event factor. (1) Point: Research has contradicted Loftus’ study suggesting that anxiety can improve the accuracy of EWT. This information is then delivered by the bystander in a courtroom, where the jury must pay special attention and may even come to a decision based on this, somewhat reliable piece of evidence. Because of this study and other studies psychologist suggest that the accuracy of eyewitness suggest that information given from them is far less reliable than we might have first thought. Factors Affecting the Accuracy of EWT Description, AO1 – Anxiety and EWT: There is conflicting evidence about the effect of stress and anxiety on the accuracy of EWT (i.e., the accuracy of witness recall). face acknowledgment in other races. Outline and evaluate how retrieval failure due to the absence of cues leads to forgetting (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level) Factors affecting eyewitness testimony. eyewitness’s do make mistakes on identifying someone and causes that person to be wrongfully Outline And Evaluate Factors Influencing Eye Witness Testimony Harvard Case Study Solution and Analysis of Harvard Business Case Studies Solutions – Assignment HelpIn most courses studied at Harvard Business schools, students are provided with a case study. These factors include characteristics of the witness, characteristics of the witnessed event, characteristics of testimony, lineup content, lineup instructions, and methods of testing. A01: Loftus and Palmer (1974). Eyewitness Testimonies in the Legal Setting Key Word. Eyewitness testimony can create a number of problems for police and prosecutors. One of the key findings is that EWT is often inaccurate and is affected by various factors; one being age. Research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors including anxiety and stress, reconstructive memory and also the use of leading questions. Evaluation: This is positive because it is further evidence that high levels of anxiety can result in a false eyewitness testimony, as found in Loftus’ research, supporting the theory that anxiety affects EWT accuracy. * Linked to anxiety – if there is a weapon involved is attention driven only to weapon? Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Considerable research has addressed how jurors evaluate eyewitness memory and whether their evaluations can be improved. The model attempts to identify the process that a stimulus must go through to become a retrievable memory. This recollection is used as evidence to show what happened from a witness' point of view. information incompletely or inaccurately (Deffenbacher, Bornstein, Penrod, &McGorty, 2004). During the acquisition process, there are a number of factors that can affect an eyewitness’ report of an event. ... Factors affecting accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony - Duration: 27:04. They found that more dramatic words can influence someone’s memory when asked to recall a situation, even after a week they found that the whole word had influenced their whole memory. 04 Identify three variables affecting conformity and outline how eachof these was investigated in Asch’s experiment. Eyewitness testimony is the account a bystander gives in the courtroom, describing what they perceived happened during the specific incident under investigation. Loftus believed that the anxiety caused by the weapon (i.e., blood –stained knife) narrowed the focus of attention for the witness and took attention away from the face of the man – therefore making their recall (EWT) less detailed and less accurate. Project that stated 75% of the 218 people exonerated on the basis of DNA were mistakenly A strength of both of these studies is that they are naturalistic experiments, so have more ecological validity, but the study doesn’t take into account individual differences, because different people respond to anxiety in different... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes, Without Connection to Others There Is No Me, Zoophilia: Human Sexual Behavior and Local Dog Shelter. The man then emerged from the laboratory holding a knife covered in blood. An example of the affect factors such as leading questions can have on eyewitness testimonies is the … Eye witness testimonies are affected by a number of factors, but the one that I am going to focus on is anxiety. One factor that is thought to have a significant effect on eyewitness memory is the degree of emotional arousal or stress experienced by the witness during the crime. There is conflicting evidence about the effect of stress and anxiety on the accuracy of EWT (i.e., the accuracy of witness recall). ... 06 Outline and briefly evaluate locus of control as an explanation of resistance to social influence. sleep deprivation they were interrogated. ...Eye Witness Testimony However, research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors: Anxiety / Stress taking inquiries and many more. Half of them were threatened with physical harm and Every year, more than 75,000 eyewitnesses identify criminal suspects in the U.S., and studies suggest that as many as a third of them are wrong. Outline and Evaluate research into coding/capacity/duration of STM and LTM (8/10) 12. In the control condition, participants heard an amicable discussion about an equipment failure, a man then appeared from the room with greasy hands holding a pen. Procedure:eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'psychologyhub_co_uk-medrectangle-3','ezslot_1',111,'0','0'])); Those who had witness the man holding a pen correctly identified the target 49% of the time, compared to those who had witness the man holding a knife, who correctly identified the target 33% of the time. A key factor is the use of misleading information (information that suggests a desired response), especially in the form of leading questions and post-event discussion. ...Eye Witness Testimony Two Caucasian male tar… PSHYCHOLOGY OUTLINE AND EVALUATE THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF EWT( EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY) One of the most important practical applications of memory research involves EWT (eyewitness testimony). This can be divided into event factors and witness factors. * Deffenbacher – MA of studies found considerable support for a negative correlation between anxiety and EWT meaning the more anxious the less accurate their testimonies were. Word Count = 799 (Not including headings and bibliography) There is an organization called the Innocence Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Ideally this recollection of events is detailed; however this is not always the case. Eyewitness testimony is admissible in a court of law to assist in the conviction of individuals. * Loftus et al... ...Eyewitness Testimony 1 Factors which can influence EWT are; misleading questions, post event information, emotional arousal, stress, cognitive interview, weapon focus effect and age. Post-event discussion is information added t… Numerous factors may affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, which may lead to people being convicted of crimes they did not commit. Some and Memon et al. Abstract . A study showing the effect of age on EWT was carried out by Flin et al, he asked children and adults the same questions about an incident they had witnessed, one day after the event and then again after five … Refers to the use of eye or ear witnesses in court or in police statements about the identity of someone who has committed a crime. The findings from this study were that those who were closer gave a more accurate account, and those who were closest provided more detail. Grantham University Yuille and Cutshall interviewed people who had witnessed a real life shooting and found that recall was very accurate despite high levels of anxiety, however, the people who were subjected to the highest levels of anxiety were nearest to the incident so would have been able to see more clearly what happened. Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Factors that Influence EWT Eyewitness Testimony 2 Eyewitness testimony is a legal term. The participants were later asked to pick out the person they saw leave the room with the knife/pen from 50 photographs. They can often be misled when asked the questions. Laboratory study Loftus (1979) asked participants to wait outside a room before the study began. In a military study on highly stressful interrogations (Morgan et al. ... identify three factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness The term ‘eye witness testimony' refers to the of exploration into the accuracy and reliability of storage concerning significant events, ... Outline and Evaluate Factors Influencing Eye Witness Testimony Essay. Eyewitness testimonies’ have been considered a credible source in the past, but have recently come under attack as forensics now support psychologists in their claim that memories and individual perceptions are unreliable; as they are easily manipulated, altered, and biased. I have the AO1 bit down - I have written about studies by Flin et al. Outline and evaluate the research into eyewitness testimony. This is known as post-event discussion. Objectives: To be able to outline factors affecting eyewitness testimony including leading questions. However, inaccuracies in EWT are common, accounting for about 75% of incorrect convictions later found to be innocent using DNA evidence. The multi store /Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model was first recognised in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin. Moreover the participants were awaiting for something to happen to therefore you result in demand characteristics. 74% of these 300 cases resulted in criminal convictions. In lieu of an abstract, below is the article's first paragraph. It refers to; an account given by person(s) of an event they’ve witnessed. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory. The significance of eyewitness testimony was highlighted in this report and resulted in much more research being undertaken. One piece of research that has explored factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, comes from Loftus and Palmer (1974). Deffenbacher (1983) was one of the first to investigate the link between anxiety and EWT and after reviewing 21 studies, he found that accuracy is poor when emotional arousal is either high or low, but is better under conditions of moderate arousal. Improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, including the use of the cognitive interview. Matsumoto, 2009 defined eyewitness testimony as information that an individual can provide about a crime. Victims may simply misremember or misreport what they have seen. Investigated how misleading information can alter memory post event. the other half was not. In the experimental condition, participants were subject to a hostile discussion, followed by the sound of breaking glass and overturned furniture, a man then emerged from the room holding a knife covered in blood. Eye witness testimony is a statement given under oath which police departments widely reply on. Factors affecting Eyewitness Testimony. Evidence: Deffenbacher et al concluded from meta-analysis that anxiety levels that are too low or too high negatively affect EWT accuracy suggesting that eyewitness testimony is impaired if a person becomes too anxious. Although, eyewitness are relied on frequently there is strong research to suggest it isn’t as reliable as we may think. Cognitive psychologists believe that under stressful situations a person can encode the Eye witness testimonies are accounts from witnesses to a crime or accident given as evidence in a court or to the police. ... Further research by Loftus and Palmer supports the role of misleading information affecting the accuracy of EWT. Evaluation, AO3 of Loftus (1979) research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of EWTeval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'psychologyhub_co_uk-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',112,'0','0'])); (1) Point: Further research from Deffenbacher et al (1983) supports the suggestion that anxiety affects the accuracy of EWT. They found that increased arousal led to improvements in the accuracy of recall. Choosing 3 studies, perhaps 1 lab study and 2 real life ones, and describing them in simple paragraphs would be sufficient. Perhaps the issue at hand was not important to us at the time, and In condition 2, the participants heard a hostile discussion, followed by the sound of breaking glass and overturned furniture. stress) were correct. ‘Outline and evaluate research into eyewitness testimony.’ ... one of the main factors is the role of anxiety. 2004) they placed 500 ...Outline and evaluate research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eye witness testimony. Research regularly shows that EWT is affecting by experiences occuring after a witnessed event. ... (12 marks)“Outline and evaluate research into how anxiety effects eye witness testimony” (12 marks) Post-event discussion. Condition 1 heard what they believed to be an amicable discussion about equipment failure, after which a man came out with greasy hands, holding a pen. Also they tested students who may be better at recalling information rather than someone much older which shows low population validity. * Loftus et al – participants heard an argument then saw a man in a pen stained shirt with a pen in is hand or a man in a blood stained shirt and a paper knife in his hand. This shows that in real life eyewitness testimony anxiety can heighten the accuracy of recall (Christian and Hubbinette, 1993) whereas Loftus (1979) suggested that anxiety particularly posed by a weapon may decrease recall accuracy. ...The Inconsistency of harm), 76% were right. There are factors that affect the truth of eyewitness testimony such as emotions. Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information. Evidence: For example, participants in condition 2 witnessed quite a disturbing scene – the confederate leaving the office holding the blood stained knife. Outline and evaluate research into the effect of anxiety on eyewitness performance. Laboratory based studies have generally shown impaired recall in people who have witnessed unpleasant or anxiety-inducing situations (e.g., research by Loftus). But only 34% of those that WERE threatened with physical harm (high Some witnesses has seen the incident close, while some from further away. RUNNING HEAD: Eyewitness Testimony “Eyewitness testimony is so unreliable that it should never be used in convicting criminals”. An illustration of the affect factors such as prima inquiries can hold on eyewitness testimonies is … In over 300 cases, the eyewitness testimony was the sole “evidence” used in conviction. Mark Maldonado There is evidence to support that anxiety helps eye witness testimony. Thirdly, anxiety research raises ethical issues. Both of these models propose that memory is a complex phenomenon that must go... ...Should eyewitness testimony be used as evidence in a court of law? Eyewitness Testimony Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology Pages: 7 (1574 words) Outline and evaluate the behavioural approach to abnormality Pages: 3 (550 words) The Cognitive Interview and Eyewitness Credibility Pages: 7 (1544 words) expert testimony is based on ‘a reliable body of knowledge or experience’.15 Combining both these empirical and legal questions, we argue that the categorical rejection of all expert evidence on the credibility and reliability of witness testimony is not justified, but nor is … Witnesses are particularly inaccurate, studies show, when asked to remember the facial features of someone of... ...Outline and evaluate research into how anxiety affects eye witness testimony There has been a vast amount of interest into eyewitness testimony (EWT). Memory recall has been considered a credible source in the past, but has recently come under attack as forensics can now support psychologists in their claim that memories and individual perceptions are unreliable; being easily manipulated, altered, and biased. This study did not lack mundane realism as the participants were real witnesses. eight picture line-up. Cohen describes “erroneous eyewitness testimony” as being the “leading cause of wrongful conviction”. Misleading information is where a person may be asked a question to either provoke a specific answer or lead the witness to an out of context situation. Outline and evaluate research into the effects of leading questions on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. identified. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. One source of misleading information comes from leading questions. Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, ... the individual believes that the post-event information is in fact the original memory and falsely report this during testimony questioning. There are factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony such as emotions, fundamental attribution bias, face recognition in other races, leading questions and many more. Among those who were under moderate stress (not threatened with physical Majo The guilt or innocence of people is often decided on the accuracy of the memories of eyewitnesses. There is also another study, Christianson and Hubinette, interviewed people who had witnessed genuine bank robberies and found that the people who had been subjected to the greatest anxiety had the most detailed and accurate recall. Evidence: For example, Christianson and Hubinette (1993) studied the recall of witnesses to real bank robberies. Many people throughout Western North Carolina believe eyewitness testimony is one of the most solid types of evidence in criminal cases. I just have no idea what to write for AO2! One factor that is thought to have a significant effect on eyewitness memory is the degree of emotional arousal or stress experienced by the witness during the crime. Eye witness testimony (EWT) is regularly a deciding factor for courts in the criminal justice system to ‘prove’ the guilt or innocence of the criminally accused. Evaluation: This is a weakness as it goes against Loftus’ finding that anxiety reduces EWT accuracy and suggests that anxiety-creating situations don’t always divert attention from important features of the situation.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'psychologyhub_co_uk-box-4','ezslot_3',113,'0','0'])); (2) Point: Loftus’s study can be criticised as being unethical. This is solely because human memory is fragile and malleable. Laboratory based studies have generally shown impaired recall in people who have witnessed unpleasant or anxiety-inducing situations (e.g., research by Loftus). They asked participants to estimate the speed of two cars, changing cues provided in the question. Laboratory studies and some ‘real life’ studies have generally shown impaired recall in people who have witnessed particularly distressing or anxiety induced situations. Description, AO1 – Research into factors (anxiety) affecting the accuracy of EWT: Loftus (1979), This study aimed to investigate effect of anxiety levels on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. After 48 hours of being deprived of food and Eyewitness testimony can be unreliable due to conditions at the scene of a crime, memory “contamination” and misrepresentation during trial. Key Study into EWT – Loftus and palmer were interested in seeing how misleading questions affected eyewitness testimony, they conducted a lab experiment in which 45 students were shown films of traffic accidents, they were then asked a question about how fast the car was going, students were either given the verb hit, smashed, contacted, collided or bumped. Eye witness testimonies are the evidence given in court or in police investigation by someone who has witnessed a crime or an accident. Discuss using research and/ or psychological theory to support your views. Research into eye witness testimonies being affected by anxiety is mixed and It is believed that eye witness testimony is most accurate when the anxiety level is somewhere in between low and high anxiety. After being criticised for its supposed simplicity, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed the working memory model. * Unpleasant emotional state where we fear that something bad is about to happen usually accompanied by physiological arousal (pumping heart) and Loftus et al. Ashleigh Precoma Laughery et al (1971) tested subjects on their recall based on the exposure time to a picture, showed one at a time of different positions of a human face. By: Megan Hong These researchers investigated the impact of leading questions on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, where the wording/ phrasing of a certain question leads the interviewee to a certain response. More than 2,000 studies on eyewitnesses in recent decades have determined that recollections are prone to decay, distortion, and suggestion. They interviewed witnesses to a real life shooting. Factors affecting Eye witness testimony- Memory (2.05) Psychology AQA paper 1 - Duration: 15:15. In 1976, the Devlin report examined over 2000 identity parades in the U.K. Of the 2000 parades, 45% resulted in a suspect being identified and out of these, 82% were eventually convicted of a crime. cardinal ascription prejudice. However you could criticise the Loftus and Palmers study and claim that it was not done in a real life situation so it may not have had the same impact as maybe a real life accident may have had as many may have not been emotionally effective. We review major developments in the experimental literature concerning the way that various factors relate to the accuracy of eyewitness identification. Witness confidenc… Accuracy was better for group 1 showing that attention is drawn to the weapon thus decreasing the accuracy of EWT. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory. Essay Plans. Loftus then supplied participants with 50 photos and asked them to identify the man who had come out of the room. * Christianson and Hubinnette questioned real witnesses to robberies and compared those who were involved (a hostage etc) to those that were not involved (onlookers) and found those that were involved and therefore had higher anxiety had better recall than those that just witnessed it. Eye witness testimony is a legal term for evidence which is supplied by people who witness a specific event and then have to rely on their memory to recall the situation as best as they can. military members in a mock prisoner of war camp. One of the most widely known studies into anxiety affecting eyewitness testimony is Loftus’ study to find out if anxiety during a witnessed incident affects the accuracy of later identification. Evaluation: This is a weakness because the studying can be seen to be breaching the BPS guidelines as Loftus hasn’t protected her participants from harm – such a scene may cause the participant a great deal of distress. Discuss Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony Essay Sample. The weapon focus effect phenomenon as identified by Loftus 1979, she asked participants to sit outside a laboratory where they thought they were hearing a genuine exchange between people inside the laboratory. Evaluation, AO3 of Loftus (1979) research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT. This section of the essay will evaluate the effect of these factors on the reliability of eyewitness testimony. I.e. Loftus and Palmer were interested to see how something as simple as a misleading question affected those who were taken as eyewitnesses. This includes information about the perpetrator(s) as well as information about the crime and crime scene. * Weapon Focus Effect 6 AO1 marks would come from a description of relevant research studies. After one day they were asked to identify their interrogator’s from an Outline and evaluate research into the effects of age of witnesses on accuracy of eyewitness testimony (12 marks) I don't really know what to write for this question. However, misleading information in the real world can come from other sources, for example other witnesses (co-witnesses), when they discuss the details of a crime of accident, following an incident. 11. Eyewitness testimony can be an incredibly compelling form of evidence during criminal justice proceedings in Austin. However this study lacked mundane realism. There isn’t a simple relationship between emotional arousal and the accuracy of EWT. We've all experienced, at one time or another, our own memories failing us at times, and this may have been due to a number of factors. There are factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony such as emotions, fundamental attribution bias, face recognition in other races, leading questions and many more. Why are so many eyewitnesses mistaken? Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, including leading questions and post-event discussion; anxiety. Innocent people are mistaken far more often that people think. Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Identification . To rely on factors that affect the truth of eyewitness testimony - Duration 15:15. Photos and asked them to identify the process that a stimulus must go through become. Multi store /Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model was first recognised in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin t a simple between... 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